This page provides a summary and brief descriptions of the most important new additions to the coin and banknote collection as well as to the numismatic library. The lists will be updated as the occasion demands; the most recent additions are at the top of each list.
- Kingdom of Westphalia
- Roman Empire
- Roman Republic
- China, 2 x 10 cash, no year (1361-99)
- Prussia, Kingdom, 1/9 Thaler, 1755
- Tibet, 10 Tam, 1658 (= AD 1912)
- Brandenburg-Prussia, triple Reichstaler, 1631
- Electorate of Saxony, ½ Guldengroschen, undated
- German occupation of Belgium, Société Générale de Belgique banknote, 100 francs, 6 March 1918
- Duchy of Pomerania, 2 ducats, 1654
- Poland, Narodowy Bank Polski, 1 March 1990, 1 zloty
- Herzogtum Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
- Imperial Abbeys of Murbach and Lüders
- Ancient Greek World, Thraco-Macedonian tribes
- Japanese Empire, Dai Nippon Teikoku Kokuritsu Ginko, (Imperial Japanese National Bank) 1 Yen 1877
- United States of America 1896 $5 silver certificat
- Java, Batavian mint (Jakarta)
- Carolingian Empire Pepin the Short, King of the Franks 751-768
- Germany, Baden-Baden, 1914
- Central bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Russian Empire, Para
- British Isles, Irish “money of necessity” 1642-1644
- City of Zara (Zadar) under French occupation
- Ancient Greek World, Electrum coins of the 7th century BC
- Collection of 202 bracteate counterfeits of the 18th and 19th centuries
- Empire of Russia, 5 Kopeks 1764
- Anonymous, 4 pounds undated (1945-46)
- Austrian Empire, issues of emergency banknotes
- Kingdom of Poland, 500 and 1000 Złotych 8.6.1794
- Carolingian Empire, Pippin the Short, King of the Franks
- Roman Empire, Denar 68 B.C.
- Ancient Greek World, non-pictorial electrum coin
Kingdom of Westphalia
A 100 and 200-franc treasury note, 8 July 1812
The Kingdom of Westphalia existed from 1807 to 1813 and was ruled by Jerome Bonaparte, Napoleon Bonaparte's brother. The kingdom initially issued treasury notes with handwritten denominations to pay for government services. These were later replaced by 20, 50, 100 and 250-franc notes with their values printed on them.
Each note has an indenture on the left-hand side and a seal depicting an eagle and the initials JN for Jerome Napoleon in a shield, as well as the inscription "GEN:INTENDANZ DES STAATSSCHATZES" and an oval-shaped watermark with the word "Schatzschein" (treasury note) written by hand.
100 francs [Object ID: 75854]
250 francs [Object ID: 75858]
Aureus of Septimius Severus, 193-211
Lucius Septimius Severus Pertinax was born at Leptis Magna (in present-day Libya) in the Roman province of Africa. The son of Publius Septimius Geta and Fulvia Pia, he reigned as emperor from 9 April 193 to 4 February 211. Septimius Severus founded a dynasty of five emperors who ruled ‒ with a one-year interruption from April 217 to June 218 ‒ from 193 to 235, the year in which Severus Alexander, the last member of the dynasty, was assassinated at Mogontiacum (modern-day Mainz, Germany). The images and inscription on this aureus, which happens to be the only coin to show all four members of the imperial family, affirm the continuity of the empire and the Severan dynasty. This proved to be a vain hope, as Caracalla ‒ the elder son of Septimius Severus ‒ killed his own brother Geta in the arms of their mother.
[Object ID: 69654]
Denar of Quintus Labienus Parthicus, 40 BC
Quintus Labienus belonged to the immediate circle of Brutus, one of the assassins of Julius Caesar. As a loyal follower of Brutus, he was sent to serve as ambassador to the court of Orodes, king of the Parthians, in order to beg support for the republican cause against Octavian and Antony. After the defeat of Caesar’s murderers at the Battle of Philippi in the autumn of 42 BC, however, Labienus suddenly found himself in the position of not being able to return to the territories of the Roman Empire. He joined the Parthians, placing himself at the head of an invading army and, during his campaign of conquest in Asia Minor, had gold and silver coins minted. For the obverse of the coins, he chose his own portrait in direct imitation of Brutus and, indirectly, Caesar, with the edge inscription "Q. Labienus Parthicus Imp". The reverse shows a bridled and saddled horse with a carrier for a bow and arrows. The coins were intended as payment for the Roman soldiers who had defected to Labienus and the Parthians. In 39 BC, Labienus was defeated in the Taurus mountains in a Roman counterattack under the legate sent by Mark Antony, Publius Ventidius Bassus. Labienus was subsequently captured in Cilicia, where he had found refuge, and executed.
[Object ID: 68845]
China, 2 x 10 cash, no year (1361-99)
Coin issued by the Chinese rebel Zhu Yuanzhang (top coin), a monk who, in the period between 1361 until 1368, led a rebellion against the Mongols, deposed the ruling Great Khan and proclaimed himself emperor of China. He adopted the reign title of Hongwu (bottom coin) and established the Ming dynasty, which lasted until 1644. The world’s oldest known banknote dates back to the Hongwu reign.
Round Chinese coins with a square hole in the middle were called cash and circulated for two millennia until into the early twentieth century, not just in China but also in neighbouring countries such as Japan. The majority of them were cast from bronze or brass. The script on the obverse names the ruler (read from top to bottom) and the validity (from right to left). The symbols on the reverse side give the value of the coin and the mint.
Top coin: Da Zhong tong bao / Jing Shi
Da Zhong[’s] circulating currency / [issued by] Nanjing mint [at] 10 cash
Bottom coin: Hongwu tong bao / Gui Shi
Hongwu[’s] circulating currency / [issued by] Guilin mint [at] 10 cash
Prussia, Kingdom, 1/9 Thaler, 1755
Recent Acquisitions of the coin and banknote collection.
Frederick II of Prussia – also known as “Frederick the Great” – came from the House of Hohenzollern. He was born the son of the Prussian “Soldier King” Frederick William I on 24 January 1712. During his reign, the still young Kingdom of Prussia rose to become a great power
No other monarch in Europe left such a lasting influence on the coins and monetary system of his country as Frederick the Great. Through his coin reforms of 1750 and 1764, not only did he set Prussia on a new course, he also played a key role in paving the way for later developments in the rest of Germany. Johann Philipp Graumann, the mint director commissioned with implementing the reforms, converted the seven Prussian mints (Berlin, Breslau, Cleves, Aurich, Königsberg, Magdeburg and Stettin) into state-owned enterprises. New coin denominations were created and the coin systems of the individual regions were harmonised. 1/6 and 1/12 thaler were amongst the coins minted for the whole Kingdom of Prussia. The 4 Mariengroschen coins minted in East Frisia did not fit into this system. According to the conversion rate, these coins were equivalent to 1/9 of the Prussian thaler and were thus exactly halfway between the two denominations of the minted currency (ie money in full circulation which takes its value from the precious metal it contains). There may have been plans to issue a matching 1/9 thaler coin for the western parts of the Kingdom which used the Mariengroschen so that a coin which was valid for the whole of Prussia would also be available for these western regions in the future.
The 1/9 taler from the Aurich mint depicted here is one of three known specimens and the only Prussian coin with the denomination 1/9 taler. It is also the only coin from the East Frisian province designated to bear the portrait of Frederick the Great.
Tibet, 10 Tam, 1658 (= AD 1912)
Recent Acquisitions of the coin and banknote collection.
China, the Middle Kingdom, was embroiled in many internal and external conflicts in the 19th century, which meant that the 13th Dalai Lama was able to guide the central Asian region of Tibet to independence without Chinese intervention. His reform efforts led to a modernisation of the country. One of the areas to be affected was the monetary system, where he had banknotes issued along the lines of the British-Indian model. The notes were produced using the letterpress printing process and had three layers. The third layer was inscribed and inserted as a security feature between the obverse and reverse sides of the banknote, which were printed separately. When held against the light, this produces a security effect comparable to a watermark.
[Data record ID: 65571]
Brandenburg-Prussia, triple Reichstaler, 1631
George William, Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia, 1619-1640
Elector George William came to power during difficult times. The Thirty Years’ War was raging in the realm and the economy suffering from a debased currency and raging inflation. After overcoming the troubled years of 1619-1623, George William began to increase the issuance of talers; he intended first to restore the currency to health and also needed the newly minted talers to pay his troops as well as settle the burdens of war imposed on his lands. The elector often resided with his court outside Berlin at Königsberg in order to escape the deprivations of war.
After the death of Duke Albert Frederick of Prussia in 1618, the duchy along with the mint at Königsberg became part of Brandenburg. After Berlin, it became the second mint in the enlarged territory now known as Brandenburg-Prussia.
The triple Reichstaler from the Königsberg mint depicted here is the only known specimen.
[Data record Id. 67549]
Electorate of Saxony, ½ Guldengroschen, undated
Frederick III, the Wise, 1486-1525
In the 15th century, the Electorate of Saxony, which was rich in silver reserves, began minting high-quality silver coins under Elector Frederick III, known as Frederick the Wise. In agreement with his uncle Albrecht, Margrave of Meissen and Duke of Saxony, and his brother John, Landgrave of Thuringia, Frederick enacted the minting regulation of 1500, which also served as a model for other mints and as the basis for the imperial minting ordinance of the 16th century. Owing to their high silver content , Frederick III’s coins were withdrawn from circulation by other rulers and their material was used to mint coins with a lower fineness. Only very few specimens have survived. There is only one other known specimen of the ½ Guldengroschen depicted here, which was issued in honour of Frederick III being appointed governor-general of the empire (Statthalter) by King Maximilian I at the Imperial Diet of Konstanz on 8 August 1507.
The Latin inscription on the obverse gives the name and titles of the Elector of Saxony: ¬ FRID ± DUX ± SAXONIE ± PRINCEPS ± ELECTOR ± ET ± SACRI / ° ROMA ± IMPER ± LOCVM ± TENENS ± GENE; the reverse shows the name and title of King Maximilian I: MAXIMILIANVS ¬ ROM ¬ REX ¬ SEMPER ¬ AVGVSTVS.
[Data record Id. 67348]
German occupation of Belgium, Société Générale de Belgique banknote, 100 francs, 6 March 1918
The Société Générale pour favoriser l’Industrie Nationale was founded in 1822 by William I, King of the Netherlands, and took on the role of an emergency bank for the area ceded by the Netherlands to become the independent country of Belgium. It performed this role until the Banque Nationale de Belgique was established in 1835. At the beginning of the First World War, the company, following a break of 80 years, was authorised to issue paper money again by the German government, after the Belgian government had fled into exile at the outbreak of the war, taking the printing plates of the Banque Nationale de Belgique with it. The occupation banknotes were issued between 1914 and 1918 in nominal values of 1, 2, 5, 20, 100 and 1,000 francs.
[Data record Id. 64642]
Duchy of Pomerania, 2 ducats, 1654
Ernst Bogislaw, Duke of Croÿ
Statthalter (Governor) of Brandenburg, 1637-1684
and Christina of Sweden, 1632-1654
Coin commemorating the burial of Duke Bogislaw XIV, who died without issue in his castle in Szczecin on 10 March 1637. This brought an end to the House of Griffins, a dynasty of dukes ruling Pomerania. It also meant the loss of independence for the state of Pomerania, which was partitioned between Brandenburg and Sweden under the terms of the 1648 Peace of Westphalia. The long-standing dispute over inheritance resulted in the last Duke of Pomerania’s coffin being left unburied for 17 years as neither side wanted to take on the costs without being certain of the inheritance. It was not until 1653 that Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, and the Swedish government installed in West Pomerania began negotiations on the interment of the last Duke of Pomerania. The initially scheduled date of 15 December 1653 had to be postponed, however, on account of the plague that was ravaging the country. Finally, on 25 May 1654, the last Duke of the House of Griffins was solemnly laid to rest in Szczecin. According to historical records, 25 coins of the type displayed above were minted to commemorate the entombment of the Duke.
The Latin inscription on the obverse gives the names and titles of Duke Bogislaw XIV, along with his dates of birth and death.The motto on the reverse translates as "I hope for (eternal) life".
[Data record Id. 67277]
Poland, Narodowy Bank Polski, 1 March 1990, 1 zloty
In the late 1980s, banknotes with high inflationary nominal values were in circulation in the socialist People’s Republic of Poland. Following the collapse of the ‘Eastern Bloc’ and the foundation of the Republic of Poland, banknotes were given a new appearance, but the problem of inflation continued to exist. A currency reform was implemented in 1995. In the run-up to this reform, new banknotes had already been commissioned from the German printing works Giesecke & Devrient. However, this “city series” was never issued. Not only were the security features (watermarks, security threads, fluorescent fibres in the paper, Braille code) felt to be inadequate, the design of the banknotes (the same format but without portraits) also met with a negative response in many cases. The “city series” was put into storage shortly after production and later destroyed. A small number with the overprint NIEOBIEGOWY (not for circulation) were released for the collectors’ market.
[Data record Id. 64419]
Henry II (the Younger), 1514-1568
Reichsguldiner, n. d. (1560)
The Third Imperial Mint Order was issued in Augsburg in 1599. Amongst other things, this led to the creation of a new large silver coin, the Reichsguldiner (imperial guldiner), which “shall be worth LX. kreutzer or one common old gulden, and has been named the imperial guldiner”. Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel immediately began to produce the new denomination at its mint in Goslar and inserted the prescribed denomination of 60 (kreuzers) in the lower field of the imperial orb on the reverse. On our specimen, the denomination has been almost entirely removed so that the coin could be fobbed off on an unwitting or unknowing seller at the same rate as the “common old gulden”, which was originally worth 63 kreuzers – or even as a taler worth 68 kreuzers.
The 12 letters under the image of the duke stand for “In Gotts Gewalt hab’ ich’s gestalt; der hat’s gefügt, dass mir’s genügt!” (In God’s Power I Have Fashioned It; He Has Provided That It Is Enough For Me); in other words, acceptance of the destiny allotted by the Almighty.
[Data record Id. 58636]
Imperial Abbeys of Murbach and Lüders
Cardinal Andrew of Austria, 1587-1600
Murbach Abbey in Alsace was founded in 727 and merged with Lüders Abbey in Upper Burgundy in the 16th century. In 1544, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V granted the abbeys the right to mint silver coins. Immediate use was made of this right, which continued to be exercised into the second half of the 17th century. The galero (a large broad-brimmed tasselled hat worn by cardinals) above the large quartered shield on the obverse with the coats of arms of Burgau, Hohenberg, Nellenburg and Feldkirch shows the status of the person who holds the coinage prerogative. The smaller, likewise quartered shield combines the coats of arms of Austria, the House of Habsburg, Lüders and Murbach. The Latin inscription states the name of the individual commissioning the coin as well as the offices he holds: ANDR(EAS) CARD(INALIS) AB AVST(RIA) MVR(BACENSIS) ET LVTR(ENSIS) ADMI(NISTRATOR) – Andreas, Cardinal of Austria, administrator of Murbach and Lüders.
Owing to the extreme rarity of this coin, it is presumed to have been a special piece minted for representational purposes.
[Data record Id. 57948]
Ancient Greek World, Thraco-Macedonian tribes
Large silver piece, around 500 BC
With the beginning of silver coinage in the Ancient Greek world around 500 BC, the Thraco-Macedonian region (modern East Macedonia and Thrace, Greece) assumed a particular position. Unlike in, say, Athens, Aegina or Corinth, whose first circulating coins weighed between roughly 8g and 17g, the abundant supply of metal meant that large silver pieces were produced by the tribes settled in this region. Researchers consider the specimens, some of which weigh over 40g, not to be the normal local currency but rather silver that was intended for export and standardised using pictorial designations, not dissimilar to precious metal ingots with standardised weights. This means that the specimen is still an article or a medium of exchange that was already standardised and not a coin in the generally accepted sense of the word. There is source documentation for some of the ethnic groups that issued them; the existence of other tribes is merely inferred with lesser or greater certainty from the inscriptions on the ingots and from finds.
[Data record Id. 57547]
Japanese Empire, Dai Nippon Teikoku Kokuritsu Ginko, (Imperial Japanese National Bank) 1 Yen 1877
For a brief period from 1872 onwards, several central banks enjoyed the authority to issue paper money, of which the banknote shown here, issued by the Imperial National Bank, is also an example. This step led to an inflationary increase in the amount of money in circulation, which is why these banks’ issuing rights were withdrawn in 1878, with the Bank of Japan (Nippon Ginko) becoming the sole national central bank in 1882.
The front side of this banknote bears the Japanese Emperor’s coat of arms and an imperial seal. The reverse side shows the Japanese God of Fortune, Ebisu, who was said to bring good luck to fishermen and prosperity to men of commerce. This ties in with the image of sailors gazing out to sea on the front of the banknote. This motif of success and prosperity being dispensed by Japan’s Shinto Gods of Fortune was subsequently used by the Bank of Japan in the design of one of its first ever banknotes.
[Data record Id. 57315]
United States of America 1896 $5 silver certificat
Recent Acquisitions of the coin and banknote collection.
Issued under the Congressional Act of 4 August 1886, the certificate has a value of five silver dollars. The obverse bears the inscription “This certifies that there have been deposited in the Treasury of the United States, payable to the bearer on demand, five silver dollars” all affirmed by the Red Seal of the US Department of the Treasury.
Such certificates were issued as early as 1878 and became increasingly popular since they were easier to handle than heavy metallic currency. The issuance of silver certificates ended in 1963. The certificates were redeemable until 1968; owing to rising silver prices, all redemption ceased on 24 June 1968.
The permissive portrayals of the female form on the intricately designed obverse were a cause of some displeasure amongst the general public and acceptance of the certificates was at times even refused for this reason. The less intricate design on the reverse side shows Ulysses S. Grant, the 18th President of the United States, on the left and General Philip Sheridan on the right.
[Data record Id. 55379]
Java, Batavian mint (Jakarta)
Batavian Republic (1799-1806) 2 stuiver 1803
These coins were known as “bonks” (meaning “lump” in Dutch) because of their bar-like shape. They were made using bars of Japanese copper, from which pieces of the required size were cut. These small pieces of irregular size and weight served as emergency coinage.
The manufacture of such coins in the Dutch East Indies became necessary owing to the interrupted supply of coinage from the Netherlands. The coins were first made in 1796 and were stamped with the (abbreviated) denomination on one side and the year on the other. Minted for the last time in 1818, the 8, 2, 1 and ½ stuiver pieces remained in circulation until 1826.
[Data record Id. 57256]
Carolingian Empire Pepin the Short, King of the Franks 751-768
(Mayor of the Palace 741-751) Denar (Pfennig)
The pictorial and technical traits of this early Carolingian coin, which was probably minted in Marseilles, are recognisably in the Merovingian tradition. Its precise date is still uncertain; depending on how the letters on the obverse are interpreted, the coin was minted either shortly before or shortly after 751, the year in which Pepin was anointed king, thus becoming the first ruler of the Frankish Carolingian dynasty.
[Data record Id. 57133]
Germany, Baden-Baden, 1914
At the outbreak of World War I, Notgeld (“emergency money”) began to be issued in Germany to compensate for a shortage of metal for coinage and the fact that many coins were being hoarded. Such emergency money from 1914 includes a note issued by the Hofapotheke (Court Pharmacy) in Baden-Baden, which was established in 1838 and then purchased in 1887 by Oskar Rössler, a renowned pharmacist, natural scientist, researcher and local historian.
The note is for 9.35 Marks and is made out to the recipient – in this case, Eugen Rössler’s Stadt Baden Hotel – and is personally signed by Dr. O. Rössler. The brief comment written on the reverse Eigenes Papiergeld aus großer Zeit! (“Own paper money from a great time”) is not to be found on every note issued by the pharmacy and therefore represents a special feature of this issue.
[Data record Id. 50830]
Central bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Hand-stamped 5,000-dinar novčani bon (money coupon) from the period of the Bosnian war of 1992 to 1995. It was part of one of the first provisional issues by the Bosnian central bank after Bosnia and Herzegovina declared its independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia on 2 March 1992. The hand stamp indicates the place of issue, in this case, Donji Vakuf, a small town in central Bosnia.
[Data record Id. 50320]
Russian Empire, Para
3 dengi 1772
Following the Russian occupation of Moldavia and Wallachia during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774, new coins had to be minted for the newly subjugated territories. The metal needed for striking the coins came from the captured Turkish cannons.
The crudely made pieces principally reflected the circumstances of everyday life rather than the new political reality. The reverse shows the value of the local currency, based on the Turkish system, in relation to the Russian currency system – in this case, 1 Turkish para = 3 Russian dengi; the second value issued was 2 para = 3 kopeks.
[Data record Id. 56239]
British Isles, Irish “money of necessity” 1642-1644
The political and religious upheavals in Britain during the reign of Charles I also affected Ireland. In these violent times of the Great Rebellion, it was not always possible to ensure an orderly supply of cash, especially as there had been no regular minting of coinage for Ireland under this Stuart monarch.
Crudely made local coinages of silver plate and gold were produced, of which “Inchiquin Money” and “Ormonde Money” are the best known. The issue of “Inchiquin Money”, struck in 1642 from silver that had been requisitioned from local inhabitants, was originally ascribed to Lord Inchiquin, Vice-President of the Province of Munster. Each of the coins bears an inscription showing its weight, not its value.
The second coin is from the series named after Earl of Ormonde, commander-in-chief of Royalist forces in Ireland, and shows C(arolus) R(ex) under a crown on one side and the value of 5 shillings (abbreviated as s V) on the other.
However, recent research has established that the coins were probably issued by the Lord Justices of Ireland.
[Data record Id. 56242 (Inchiquin) and 56243 (Ormonde)]
City of Zara (Zadar) under French occupation
4 francs 60 centimes 1813
In 1797, following a long period of Venetian supremacy, the city of Zara (Zadar) on the Adriatic Sea came under the rule of Austria, which, in turn, had to cede it to France in 1805. After being besieged by Austrian troops, the city fell in December 1813 and came once again under the sovereignty of the House of Habsburg.
The coin depicted bears witness to the great efforts to maintain the circulation of money during the siege. The coin blanks, made partly of church silver and weighing one, two and four ounces – abbreviated as 1, 2 and 4 O. – were punched in an improvised manner with the French municipal coat of arms on one side and the relevant value and the corresponding unit of weight on the other: one ounce = 4 francs 60 centimes, two ounces = 9 f 20 c and four ounces = 18 f 40 c.
Thus, reduced to information required to instil trust and confidence, the acceptance of the coins in payments was ensured.
[Data record Id. 56149]
Ancient Greek World, Electrum coins of the 7th century BC
In the developmental sequence ranging from non-pictorial coins to those displaying images on both sides, this coin is still quite close to the starting point. Coins minted with a pattern of strokes point to the emergence of a more or less regular structure from what were initially unorganised lines.
By the addition of a single bar, which crosses the parallel lines almost at a right angle, this item marks a clear step forward towards a more complex pictorial design. 1.17 g, AV 67.13%, AR 31.82%, Cu 0.95% (median values of four RFA measurements)
[Data record Id. 56148]
Collection of 202 bracteate counterfeits of the 18th and 19th centuries
Most of which were made by Nicolaus Seeländer (1683-1744)
Nicolaus Seeländer was appointed by Leibniz as copper engraver at the Hanover court library in 1716. Unlike privy councillor Carl Wilhelm Becker, Seeländer was not proved to be a counterfeiter during his lifetime.
Over a period of more than 20 years, a collection containing many of the pieces ascribed to Seeländer has been compiled, supplemented by some other old counterfeits of bracteates. These items form an important reference collection for this branch of mediaeval numismatics and, like Becker’s work, are now available for research purposes as part of the coin and banknote collection of the Deutsche Bundesbank.
Empire of Russia, 5 Kopeks 1764
Avesta mint, Sweden
Russian five-kopek coin struck by order of the Swedish king in 1788 for use along the Swedish-Russian border during military conflicts between the two countries.
In order to conceal this measure, the coins were “backdated” and minted with the years 1764, 1778 and 1787. In a diary entry, the Tsarina’s secretary remarked on the extremely high quality of these forgeries.
[Data record Id. 55944]
Anonymous, 4 pounds undated (1945-46)
1 pound undated (1947)
The two coins were struck in Philadelphia by the United States Mint on behalf of the Arabian American Oil Company (Aramco), which was established in 1944. These “coins” were used solely for the payment of oil production royalties in Saudi Arabia, where most of them were melted down to make gold bullion.
One side of the coin shows the seal of the mint, while the other side states its weight and degree of fineness.
[Data record Id. 55943 (4P.) and 55942 (1 P.)]
Austrian Empire, issues of emergency banknotes
1 and 2 Kreuzer, undated (1848-1849)
Handwritten emergency money of the vintner and innkeeper Wenzel Lezel from Nachod (Bohemia).
The coins were issued during the turbulent times of Hungary’s attempts to secede from the Habsburg Empire.
[Data record Id. 47935 (1 K.) and 47936 (2 K.)]
Kingdom of Poland, 500 and 1000 Złotych 8.6.1794
Issued by General Tadeusz Kościuszko, leader of the Polish freedom struggle against Russia and Prussia. The two banknotes are the highest denominations in the earliest Polish banknote series.
[Data record Id. 47920 (1000 Z.) and 47921 (500 Z.)]
Carolingian Empire, Pippin the Short, King of the Franks
751-768 (Mayor of the Palace 741-751), Denar (Pfennig)
Pepin the Short denarius, struck in Trier, perhaps from the period before he was proclaimed king in 751, and thus one of the earliest Carolingian coins to be minted.
[Data record Id. 55763]
Roman Empire, Denar 68 B.C.
Recent Acquisitions of the coin and banknote collection.
Anonymous coin minted in 68 B.C. adopting the familiar obverse motif of the Brutus coins and exploiting it in the current political setting.
[Data record Id. 55724]
Ancient Greek World, non-pictorial electrum coin
7th century B.C., unknown place of manufacture
5.84 g (AV 74.5%, AR 24.4%, Cu 0.57%, Fe 0.4% [average values of three RFA measurements]) Coin made of a naturally occurring gold and silver alloy; a specimen documenting the earliest days of coinage.
[Data record Id. 55724]