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Price competitiveness

The purpose of harmonised competitiveness indicators (HCIs) is to provide consistent and comparable measures of euro area countries' price and cost competitiveness that are also consistent with the real effective exchange rates (EERs) of the euro.

The HCIs are constructed us-ing the same methodology and data sources that are used for the euro EERs. While the HCI of a specific country takes into account both intra and extra-euro area trade, however, the euro EERs are based on extra-euro area trade only. Therefore, the HCIs and euro EERs reflect different phenomena and are not directly comparable.

The HCIs complement other competitiveness indicators published by some NCBs which may follow different methodologies and, in some cases, use different price and cost measures in order to account for the specific circumstances in the respective country.