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External sector

External sector statistics provide information on a country's economic relationships with the rest of the world. The data on transactions and stocks stem from different sources and form an important basis for economic policy decisions.

Balance of payments

The German balance of payments is a detailed statistical statement that summarises the economic transactions conducted between residents and non-residents over a given period. In addition, it constitutes an important part of the consolidated balances of payments of the euro area and the European Union.

International investment position

The International Investment Position (IIP) shows all financial assets and liabilities of an economy´s residents vis-à-vis nonresidents, valued at market prices at a point in time. Thus, the IIP provides information not only on the volume and structure of financial assets held abroad by residents, but also on financial assets held in Germany by non-residents.

External debt

German external debt states, as gross debt, only one sub-category of the liabilities reported in the international investment position vis-à-vis other countries. Only financial instruments with debt character are included in external debt.

External position of banks

The external position of banks shows the assets and liabilities of the banks in Germany and their foreign branches and subsidiaries vis-à-vis non-residents.

External position of non banks

The external position of non-banks records the assets and liabilities of resident (non-bank) enterprises vis-à-vis non-residents as at the end of a reporting period.

External position of the Bundesbank

The external position is calculated by the Deutsche Bundesbank each month and published approximately one to two weeks after the end of the reporting month.

Direct investments

The Deutsche Bundesbank’s external statistics specify direct investment abroad by resident investors and investments in the domestic economy by non-residents.

Structure and activity of foreign affiliates (FATS)

The statistics on the structure and activity of foreign affiliates (Foreign Affiliates Statistics – FATS) are based on Regulation (EC) No 716/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2007 and provide information concerning characteristics on cross-border controlled enterprises. A distinction is made between characteristics on enterprises in Germany that are controlled by foreign investors (inward FATS) and characteristics on enterprises abroad that are controlled by German investors (outward FATS). The data on inward FATS are provided by the Federal Statistical Office, while the data on outward FATS are collected and compiled by the Deutsche Bundesbank.

Exchange rates, euro foreign exchange reference rates, gold prices

The Bundesbank's exchange rate statistics represent a collection of current and historical exchange rates.

Effective exchange rates of the euro

The indices of the nominal effective exchange rates of the euro are designed to measure the impact of changes in exchange rates on price competitiveness in the euro-area industrial sector.

German indicators of price cempetitiveness

The indicators of the German economy’s price competitiveness are designed to measure price developments in Germany in relation to those of foreign competitors, taking exchange rate changes into account.