Further survey results
In addition to the regularly recurring questions on enterprise metrics, expectations and access to loans, the Deutsche Bundesbank frequently asks enterprises questions on various current issues. A selection of the results is presented here.
Impact of Russia’s war on Ukraine
In the third quarter of 2022, 36% of enterprises expected a loss of sales in 2022 due to the Russian war on Ukraine. From a sectoral perspective, the wholesale and retail trade sectors in particular expected sales to decline.
Change in the sales prices of enterprises in Germany
In September, enterprises’ sales prices rose by just under 11%. Enterprises expected their sales prices to rise in the near future by just under 11% as well.
Increase in the minimum wage to €12 per hour from 1 October 2022
The minimum wage in Germany was increased from €10.45 to €12 per hour as of 1 October 2022. In the run-up to this increase, enterprises were asked about the proportion of their employees that earned an hourly wage of less than €12. Ultimately, it is the 30% of firms that paid at least one employee less than €12 per hour that should be directly affected by the increase in the minimum wage.
There are considerable regional differences in the impact of the minimum wage increase to €12 per hour as of 1 October 2022. While only 8.6% of enterprises in the south of Germany (Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg) have to pay more than 20% of their employees the higher minimum wage, 14.6% of enterprises in the eastern federal states (Berlin, Brandenburg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia) are required to do so.
Around 40% of enterprises expected an increase in total staff costs as a result of the increase in the minimum wage. The remaining 60% of enterprises expected staff costs to change only slightly or not at all. The impact of the minimum wage increase on the employment of low-skilled workers was initially assessed as minimal. The majority of enterprises (around 80%) expected that this would not significantly change the number of low-skilled workers or the number of hours that they worked. Although around 10% of enterprises expected a decline in this regard, nearly as many enterprises expected an increase in the employment of low-skilled workers.