Harmonised competitiveness indicators based on GDP deflators*

The purpose of harmonised competitiveness indicators (HCIs) is to provide consistent and comparable measures of euro area countries' price and cost competitiveness that are also consistent with the real effective exchange rates (EERs) of the euro. The HCIs are constructed using the same methodology and data sources that are used for the euro EERs. While the HCI of a specific country takes into account both intra and extra-euro area trade, however, the euro EERs are based on extra-euro area trade only. Therefore, the HCIs and euro EERs reflect different phenomena and are not directly comparable. The HCIs complement other competitiveness indicators published by some national central banks (NCBs) which may follow different methodologies and, in some cases, use different price and cost measures in order to account for the specific circumstances in the respective country.

Last update 05.07.2021 06:03:10 PM
Euro area BE DE EE IE GR ES FR IT CY LV LT LU MT NL AT PT SI SK FI
1. Average 89.0152 98.3824 86.7122 157.8244 109.2953 84.1045 102.9303 89.0888 96.0435 91.4711 126.9584 138.7705 122.0644 109.9553 99.8535 95.1731 106.5132 93.4133 153.7549 90.1944
2. Growth rate to previous period -0.7747 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. Annual rate of change 3.7958 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. Percentage change since December 1998 (1998Q4 for quarterly data) -13.3218 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(period averages; index 1999 Q1=100)


Legend
·Related data do not exist, are subject to statistical confidentiality or are not yet available.
Some values may be estimated or preliminary.
Detailed information on the observation status can be found in the time series view.

Data source
European Central Bank (ECB).


* For the euro area, the real effective exchange rate of the euro vis-à-vis 42 trading partners is displayed. For euro area countries, the table shows the harmonised competitiveness indicators calculated vis-à-vis these same trading partners plus the other euro area countries. A positive change points to a decrease in price competitiveness. For questions about the calculation method, please refer to the Eurosystem methodology for effective exchange rates (ECB website, Statistical Data Warehouse, Notes to Table 8.1; more details in Occasional Paper Series, No. 134, June 2012; see “External links”).