Help on the time series databases
Macroeconomic time series, ESCB time series
These pages provide instructions for viewing and downloading time series.
- To use the download function, cookies must be enabled in your browser.
- We recommend that you use the conventional browser versions.
The Deutsche Bundesbank's time series database is updated on a regular basis. Please direct any enquiries about specific time series to the Deutsche Bundesbank's Press Office, including "Time series enquiry: Bundesbank time series key or time series name" in the subject line.
Structure of the time series database
The time series are grouped in lists, which are organised in a hierarchical tree structure. You can access this directly by clicking on the menu item “Time series databases” and making a selection, eg “Macroeconomic accounting systems” or “ESCB time series”.
The time series database tree allows you to search for all the available topics in the database step by step. You can open and close the individual nodes of the tree structure with a single click. Your selected path takes you directly to the available time series lists. Click on the time series of your choice in the time series list to display it as an HTML page.
Viewing a time series
You can view a time series by clicking on the Values, Chart, Attributes and Tables tabs and you can switch between these as required.
The table of values for the time series contains data on time, value and status for each individual observation as well as the relative or absolute period-to-period and year-on-year change where appropriate. These changes are calculated from the unrounded time series values, and from hypothetical euro-based values where appropriate. The data in the "value" and "change" columns may therefore differ from one another on account of rounding.
Each time series value may have a value status describing it in more detail.
All the values in the table of values can also be shown in a graph. You can adjust the graph by restricting the time period and selecting the (period-to-period/year-on-year) change.Click on "Update graph" to confirm your changes.
The following time series attributes are shown:
Attributes of a time series
Unit in which the time series values are entered.
eg DM, euro, DM/euro, 1995=100
Factor by which the data must be multiplied in order to obtain the actual values
One, ten, hundred, thousand, ..., billion
First and last dates entered
eg 2000-01 to 2000-12
Timestamp of last update
eg 2005-05-24 12:00:47
Further possible attributes include general comments, or comments on source, methodology or specific observations as well as information on the form of conversion used for the time series.
This page shows a list of all the tables in which the time series currently under observation appears.
Interpreting the time series key
All time series with a systematic key provide the option of interpreting the time series key. If you click on the icon in the page's title, you will find a table of the key components of the time series with the corresponding values and definitions.
Our time series can be downloaded in CSV and SDMX-ML format.
CSV is a text-based format which can be read by conventional spreadsheet programs such as Excel. SDMX-ML is an XML-based SDMX format. You can download any of our time series directly by clicking on the "Download (CSV)" link in the time series list or on the time series display page.
You can then switch to the download form by clicking on the “Display data basket” link. There you will find that the highlighted time series have already been entered. If necessary, you can also specify options for the download or change the selection of time series. For the latter, enter the Bundesbank keys for the time series in the appropriate text fields or delete the time series keys that have already been entered. Then click on “Update selection”. You can delete all of the time series that have been entered by clicking on “Delete all”.
Start the download.
You can then receive the CSV or SDMX-ML files on the results page that is displayed.For each time series selected there is a single file; there are also specific package files for monthly series, quarterly series, annual series and for weekly series and daily series. Use the link there to add the results page to your favourites so that you can repeat the download at a later date.
You can limit the timespan for the time series. The standard and default setting for direct downloads is the entire timespan available.
You can choose between English CSV (entries are separated by commas, a full stop is used as the decimal separator) or German CSV (entries are separated by semicolons; a comma is used as the decimal separator). The standard and default language for direct downloads is the language that you have chosen for the display. Please note that the language you select determines whether your Excel program will display the file correctly after opening it.
Carry out the following steps to set the language for the download.
- If you are using the package download function via the download form, you can specify your desired CSV language ("German" or "English") on the download form.
- If you are using the direct download function via the "Download (CSV)" link, you will receive a German CSV if you click on the link from the German page, and an English CSV if you access the link from the English version of the same page.
Download via URL
Downloading a CSV file
Statistical time series can be downloaded individually or in packages as CSV files directly from a URL. To access the Bundesbank’s time series directly, you can save these URLs as bookmarks or use them from one of your own applications.
The URL in question must be structured as follows
After StatisticDownload?, the section tsId=Zeitreihenschlüssel indicates the relevant time series key. The next part of the URL contains additional download parameters (see below). The time series keys and optional parameters are separated from each other using the & character.
Appears before a time series key and can be used several times.
Denotes the macroeconomic time series; should not be changed.
|CSV language; German in this case. Possible values are “de” and “en”.|
Currency setting for DM/euro series. Possible values: “default” = “as specified in time series”, “hypothetical” =“hypothetically denominated in euro”.
its_from= and its_to=
|Limits the time period; possible time period formats are yyyy, yyyy-mm or yyyy-mm-dd.|
Limits the data set identifiers (DSIs).
Time period for which the updated time series should be downloaded. Possible parameter values are provided in the table of time periods below.
Date format can be standard, i.e. as specified in the time series, and current date, i.e. accept the date of the last day of the period. Possible values are "default" and "dateOfDay".
- Two time series keys and default parameters:
- Two time series keys with time-period restriction from 1995 to 1996-05:
Downloading all time series
In addition to the options mentioned above, the following automatically generated ZIP files are also available for download
A ZIP file featuring all the macroeconomic time series. The time series files in SDMX-ML format are contained in the time series folder, separated according to DSI. The URL is structured as follows:
The ZIP file provided is named "BBK-Download.zip".
The ZIP files relating to individual topics, each containing all the macroeconomic time series in SDMX-ML format, an XML tree file and all XML time series lists files on the chosen topic. The generated ZIP file is broken down into a folder structure containing the following folders: tree, time series and lists. The URL is structured as follows: https://www.bundesbank.de/statistic-rmi/DownloadServlet?its_fileFormat=Archive&mode=its&tree=“Anchor“
The parameter "tree=" can adopt the following values.
Banks and other financial corporations
Economic activity and price
Enterprises and households
Macroeconomic accounting systems
Money and capital markets
Sets of indicators
The ZIP file provided is named "BBK-Download_<Anchor>.zip".
Downloading the SDMX metadata
The Bundesbank also provides a function to download metadata for a DSI, where the chosen DSI (data set identifier) is incorporated in the URL. A file downloaded in this way carries the name of the corresponding data structure definition* with the ending ".xml", for example "BBK_ACIP.xml".
* Further information on SDMX and the corresponding terms can be found at http://www.sdmx.org
The URL should be structured as follows
A summary of all DSIs can be found at
The content of the XML file indicates how a systematic time series key is structured based on the internationally applied SDMX definition and also which possible parameter values a key component can have.
- All time series in the BBNZ1 DSI:
List of the time series updated in a given time period
The Bundesbank provides lists of time series containing those time series that were updated during a specific time period. By specifying one of the time periods listed in the following table after "&its_date=", you can download an XML file which contains a list of the time series updated in the respective time period. This file will be named "BBK-Download-<time period>.xml".
Yesterday (from 0.00 to 23.59)
Current week (from Monday to Sunday)
Last week (from Monday to Sunday)
Current month (from the first to the last day of the month)
Last month (from the first to the last day of the month)
Current year (from 1 January to 31 December)
The applicable URL should be structured as follows
- All time series updated last week: https://www.bundesbank.de/statistic-rmi/StatisticDownload?its_fileFormat=
Only applicable when downloading a CSV file.
- A download package may only contain time series for one type of frequency. If the URL given contains time series keys for different frequencies (eg monthly and daily series), an error message is output in the download file.
If the download URL contains an invalid time series key, no data are downloaded. Instead, an error message is output in the download file for each invalid time series key.
For all downloads via URL.
The maximum length of a URL may be limited by the browser.
Interpreting the Bundesbank data
In national analyses, the irrevocably fixed exchange rate is often also assumed for the past in order to avoid breaks in time series. However, this procedure becomes problematic when historical data for different countries are converted into euro and then aggregated or compared with one another, since it is incorrectly assumed that the exchange rates between the national currencies were already fixed in the past. This can result in a distorted representation of the interplay between real and monetary processes within and among the economies.
Series given as DM/euro are stated in DM until December 1998 and then in euro. The rates of change in the "Year-on-year percentage change" and "Period-to-period percentage change" columns are calculated solely in euro.
These time series can be downloaded as they are or solely based on euro.
For the direct download, only the option specified in the attributes of the time series is available.
The DM/euro-denominated non-seasonally adjusted series showing outstanding amounts may contain statistical breaks which are not individually noted.
Assets and liabilities of banks in Germany
Firstly, we recommend reading the methodological notes in Statistical Supplement 1 "Banking statistics".
The results for each of the most recent reporting dates are always provisional. Changes as a result of subsequent revisions, which are included in the publication for the following reporting date, are not specifically noted.
The statistics on banking business in Germany do not contain the assets and liabilities of branches of German banks abroad; however, they do include the business of branches of foreign banks in Germany.
Statistical exceptional trends are not noted in the series showing outstanding amounts. As a result of changes in the reporting sample or the survey forms/reporting methods, there were large statistical breaks in the time series at the following times:
Statistical breaks in the time series
Inclusion of credit institutions in Saarland in the reporting sample
Inclusion of housing promotion institutions in the reporting sample
Inclusion of small cooperative banks – which until then had not been required to report – in the reporting sample.
Inclusion of east German credit institutions in the reporting sample
Adjustment of banking statistics to the Federal Statistical Office's "classification of economic activities", 1993 issue (WZ 93).
Conversion of the German banking statistics as part of harmonisation within European monetary union, involving the following changes:
External position of non-banks
(Exposures and liabilities of German enterprises vis-à-vis foreign institutions).
This primarily includes exposures and liabilities of domestic enterprises (including individuals) vis-à-vis non-residents arising from financial relationships and trade credit (credit terms and advances). It does not include participating interests in foreign enterprises, non-residents' participating interests in the equity capital of domestic enterprises or securitised assets and liabilities vis-à-vis non-residents. Purely statistical inflows and outflows are not eliminated; changes in outstanding amounts are not comparable in this respect with the data on long and short-term capital movement shown in the balance of payments. As a result of changes in the reporting sample, there were large statistical breaks in the time series in the following months:
Statistical breaks in the time series
Exemption limit raised from DM100,000 to DM500,000
East German credit institutions included in the reporting sample
Exemption limit raised from DM500,000 to DM 3 million
Exemption limit raised from DM3 million (around €1.5 million) to €5 million
The current time series can be found in table form under "Current figures/External sector/II External stock statistics, Assets and liabilities of enterprises in Germany vis-à-vis non-residents".
- In total, and by foreign currency and euro;
- by group of countries;
- by individual country
Foreign direct investment stock statistics
Firstly, we recommend reading the methodological notes in Special Statistical Publication 10 "Foreign direct investment stock statistics".
As of reporting year 2013 the foreign direct investment stocks are shown backdated to the year 2010 based on new internationally harmonized calculation requirements of the OECD Benchmark Definition, 4th edition. Therefore these data are presented separately from the data based on the previous national calculation requirements, which were used until 2012.
The results for each of the most recent reporting dates are always provisional. Changes as a result of subsequent revisions are not specifically noted.
International harmonization has led to the following changes in methodology over time:
Changes to the exemption limits
Type of change
exemption limit on the balance sheet total of investment objects raised from DM500,000 to DM1 million (see also point 1 below)
exemption limit reduced from a 20% share in capital and voting rights to less than 10%; exemption limit for minority interests (stake under 50%) for the balance sheet total of investment objects raised to DM 10 million or €5 million, exemption limit for majority shareholdings (50% or more) left at DM1 million or €500,000
a standardized exemption limit for the balance sheet total of investment objects set at €3 million (see also point 2 below)
all cross-border indirect majority shareholdings recorded if the balance sheet total of investment objects exceeds €3 million
indirect minority shareholdings no longer recorded (see also point 3 below)
|disclosure of the foreign direct investment stocks based on new internationally harmonized calculation requirements of the OECD Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment, 4th edition, backdated to reporting year 2010 (see also point 5 below)|
The following excerpts from our Special Statistical Publication 10 "Foreign direct stock investment statistics" (previous title "International capital links") provide information on the implications of the changes in exemption limits as well as changes in methodology.
1. Information on the rise in the exemption limit from our Special Statistical Publication 10, "International capital links", May 1995:
The exemption limit for the balance sheet total of investment targets was raised from DM 0.5 million to DM 1 million in 1993. Consequently, approximately 2,300 enterprises abroad with German participating interests and about 1,200 enterprises in Germany with foreign participating interests were no longer required to report. In the case of German direct investment abroad, direct investment assets declined by no more than approximately DM 400 million as a result; in the case of foreign direct investment in Germany, they declined by approximately DM 300 million.
2. Information on the change in the exemption limit from our Special Statistical Publication 10, "International capital links", May 2004:
A newly restandardised exemption limit applying to the balance sheet total of investment enterprises took effect for the first time in 2002. The increase from €0.5 million to €3 million meant that, compared with the previous year, the number of enterprises required to return reports decreased by approximately 11,800 for those enterprises abroad with German participating interests and by some 4,600 for those enterprises in Germany with foreign participating interests. At the same time, lowering the exemption limit for the balance sheet total of the investment targets of enterprises with a minority interest from €5 million to €3 million year on year led to some 300 enterprises abroad with German participating interests and approximately 200 enterprises in Germany with foreign participating interests being included for the first time. All in all, this resulted in a €7 billion reduction in the volume of German direct investment abroad and a €2 billion reduction in the volume of foreign direct investment in Germany.
3. Information on the change in the exemption limit from our Special Statistical Publication 10, "Foreign direct investment stock statistics", April 2009:
As of the end of 2007, all cross-border indirect participating interests are recorded in which a majority participation is held and the balance sheet total of the investment object exceeds €3 million. This led to the additional recording of around 1,000 indirect majority participating interests abroad and around 600 indirect majority participating interests in German enterprises. At the same time, the reporting of indirect minority participating interests in enterprises was suspended. In the case of German direct investment abroad, this affected more than 800 indirect minority participating interests and in the case of foreign direct investment in Germany, almost 600 indirect minority participating interests were affected.
4. Information on changes to the way data on investment objects are recorded from our Special Statistical Publication 10, "Foreign direct investment stock statistics", April 2009:
As part of the change to the way data are recorded, the data for dependent holding companies are also included as of the end of 2007. In the case of German direct investment abroad, this resulted in an increase in the number of investment objects of almost 1800, while in the case of foreign direct investments in Germany, the number increased by almost 1300.
5. Information on changes in calculation requirements according to the OECD Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment, 4th edition, from our Special Statistical Publication 10, "Foreign direct investment stock statistics", April 2015:
In a departure from the previous gross figures, capital links within multinational groups are netted, loans to investors are deducted and cross-border affiliated loans are allocated according to the domicile of the group's headquarters. Thus, if the group's headquarters are domiciled in Germany, the affiliated credit relationships of the enterprises in Germany are counted as positive (in the case of lending) or negative (in the case of borrowing) German foreign direct investment abroad, which is referred to as outward foreign direct investment. If the group's headquarters are domiciled abroad, the affiliated loans of the enterprises in Germany are recorded as positive (borrowing) or negative (lending) foreign direct investment in Germany, which is also called inward foreign direct investment.
Selected seasonally adjusted business statistics
Seasonally adjusted figures are calculated using estimation methods and are subject to a degree of uncertainty. This means that minor changes from one period to the next in the last place of the displayed figures are also not necessarily indicative of economically induced changes. The series are usually reproduced with a degree of accuracy which allows the mainly rounded rates of change stated in the Bundesbank's analyses to be verified.
For more information on seasonal adjustment, see Statistical Supplement 4 "Seasonally adjusted business statistics".
On these pages of the real-time database, the Deutsche Bundesbank provides real-time data sets of macroeconomic indicators (subject to revision), which can be displayed and downloaded.
Please note the following.
- The download function requires that your browser accepts cookies.
- We recommend using the conventional browser versions.
The Bundesbank's real-time database is extended on a regular basis.
Navigation and structure
The real-time database can be found in the "Time series databases" section.All the indicators of the real-time database are compiled in lists of indicators, which have been categorised using a hierarchical tree structure. You can access this directly via the menu item "Real-time data".
The data basket can be found in the "Service" section and the text and key search function can be found in the "Statistics search" section.
Time series databases: real-time data
The indicator tree allows you to search all the available topics in the database on a step-by-step basis.A single click is all that is required to open and close the individual nodes of the tree structure. Your selected path takes you directly to the available indicators.
The linked "matrix view page" provides information about the path, indicator key and the available vintages.Furthermore, you are able to select a direct download or to place indicators in your data basket.
When you display an indicator by clicking on the relevant key, you are able to retrace the path of the indicator and enter different settings to determine how the indicator is to be displayed. When you call up the page for the first time, the current values of the indicator are always displayed.
The observation period defines the y-axis and the desired vintages are arranged horizontally next to each other. The column heading corresponds to the publication date of a vintage and is displayed in the format yyyy-mm-dd.
When you press the "Apply" button, the display is updated to show your entries.
In order to improve readability of the value table in the case of very extensive reporting periods, related years are visibly grouped and can, if required, be displayed individually using the "Observation period" function.
The "Show/hide vintage attributes" function provides you with further information about the displayed values.
Values are displayed with figures grouped into sets of three.Please take note of the language settings when displaying the values. (For example, German: 123.456,7 and English: 123,456.7)
If you are using "Internet Explorer" as your browser, the value table can be copied to Excel using the copy-and-paste function.
All the values that are shown in the table can also be represented graphically.By pressing the "Apply" button, the graph is updated to take account of your entries from the observation period and the vintages.
Explanation of the indicator key and attributes
The indicator key, the path and the attributes of the respective indicator are displayed in a small window. The number of existing vintages and the publication dates of the first and the last vintages are also displayed. Furthermore, there is a table containing the key components and a table containing the attributes, together with their corresponding values and meanings.
In the case of certain indicators, you are also offered "methodical information" in PDF format, which provides information about the sources and metadata of the indicator.
You can use the indicator search function to search the database for a specific word or text string. The search is not case-sensitive.
Key search: "Real-time data"
The real-time data key search function can be found in the "Statistics search" section à located on the "Real-time data" tab.
A key search function is provided, which you can use to manually enter the indicator key in order to navigate to the indicator that you are searching for.
The eight indicator-related key components are displayed in the pre-defined order. In the text fields next to the relevant key components, you can enter one or more search criterion/criteria, separated by a comma. The search is not case-sensitive. The key components "Accounting system", "Indicator category" and "Indicator identification" are highlighted, as these three key components form a segment with a hierarchical structure.
The best procedure for assigning these key components is from top to bottom.
An indication is given in each text field as to how many codes can be used for the search. This number depends on the pre-defined search criteria. A list of all the possible codes can be displayed by clicking the "Show list" function.
By pressing the "Apply" button, the page is reloaded and the list of available codes is updated.
|The "Reset" button deletes all the entries in the text fields that were not saved beforehand by clicking the padlock symbol.|
|You can remove the lock again by re-clicking the padlock symbol.|
This page offers an autocomplete mode. If this function is activated and only one code exists for a key component, the system enters this code automatically. This mode is deactivated by default.
Moreover, the number of indicators (absolute and as a percentage of the total number of indicators) found for the current search is displayed.
The "Show selection" function searches the database according to the criteria that you specified and generates a results list below the search form.
On this page you will find a list of all the relevant codes for the respective key components resulting from the search, together with their descriptions.Any codes already entered in the text field are indicated. Using the checkboxes, you can select one or more codes for your search or cancel your selection again.
If a code is displayed without a description, this means that the code is not defined in the code list.
By pressing the "Apply selection" button (in which case the search criteria are applied) or the "Cancel" button (in which case the search criteria are not applied), you are directed back to the previous page. Here, the current search criterion is entered in the corresponding text field.
In the results list of the key search, which is generated below the search window, you will find all the indicators matching your search criteria, alphabetically sorted according to indicator key.
Furthermore, you have the option to carry out a direct download or to place the indicator or indicators in the data basket.
The "direct download" function allows you to download an indicator in CSV format. The language used is dependent on the language of the page via which you requested the file.
Using the "data basket" function, you can display a list (in tabular format) of all the indicators that you have selected.You can access the indicator itself by clicking on the relevant indicator key.You can use the "arrow up" and "arrow down" buttons to rearrange the sorting order of the list. You can remove indicators from the list by ticking the relevant checkboxes and then clicking "Remove selected items".
By selecting a download option , you will be redirected to a page where you can define the criteria for the file that you wish to download.
Depending on the selected format, this page shows the options for a matrix or snapshot download.
The standard file format is CSV and the standard language is the language of the page. Please note that the language you select determines whether your Excel program displays the file correctly after opening it.
You can choose between English CSV (entries are separated by commas, a period is used as the decimal separator) or Excel, or German CSV (entries are separated by semicolons, a comma is used as the decimal separator) or Excel.
In the "Reporting periods" (rows) section, you can set a limit on the period for which the indicators are to be displayed (entry format: yyyy-mm).These will then appear as rows in the resulting CSV or Excel file. The default setting is the entire period available.
The "Adjust limits" option can be selected only if a period was selected beforehand.
CSV is a text-based format which can be read by conventional spreadsheet programs such as Excel. In CSV format, there is one download file for each sheet.
In Excel format, the sheets belonging to a download are made available in an Excel workbook.
Download in matrix format
All the desired vintages of an indicator are listed next to each other in ascending order, thereby forming a matrix.Each of these vintages is generated as a new worksheet in the download file.
The worksheet name of the Excel file and the name of the CSV file correspond to the key of the entered indicator. The column heading corresponds to the publication date of a vintage and is displayed in the format yyyy-mm-dd. The row heading corresponds to the observation period and has the format yyyy-mm or yyyy-mm-dd. In the case of a vintage, the attributes are issued at first, followed by the values.
Download in snapshot format
For each indicator of the export list, the vintage that was available at the given date is selected. These are issued next to each other on a worksheet. There is one sheet for each snapshot time that was specified in the download options.
The worksheet name of the Excel file and the name of the CSV file correspond to the given snapshot date and has the format yyyy-mm-dd.
The complete key appears as the column heading. The row description corresponds to the observation period and has the format yyyy-mm or yyyy-mm-dd.
For each vintage, the attribute are issued first, followed by the values.
In the snapshot format, it may be the case that that different frequencies are written next to each other on a single worksheet. If so, the vintages share the date column and are always given in the format yyyy-mm. The date column is geared to the lowest available frequency.
In an Excel file, all the sheets belonging to the download are made available in a workbook.There is one tabular sheet for each frequency.
In CSV format, an individual CSV file is issued for each frequency.
The real-time database's time series have a multi-component, systematic SDMX key which enables systematic navigation and searching.
The key has the following structure.
Area (countries, country groups)
Neither seasonally or working-day adjusted
Statistical accounting system
Business activity and labour market indicators according to branches
Price or reference unit
At constant prices
Publication date: year
Publication date: month
Publication date: day
The key for an indicator is made up of key components 1-8, which are written one after the other and separated by a dot.There is also a time series key consisting of components 1-11.
Each time series contains attributes which are not part of the time series key. These are as follows:
eg "Federal Statistical Office"
Description of the indicator
Unit in which the values are specified
Factor by which the data must be multiplied in order to attain the actual values
Number of decimal places
Storage method used at the Bundesbank
Base year for indices or prices