Turnover

Background

Monthly turnover data are available for industry and the retail trade sector. Quarterly time series are published for the services sector. The results for the retail trade sector are included in the calculation of private consumption.

Seasonally and calendar-adjusted time series as well as just calendar-adjusted time series – depending on the indicator – are provided in addition to the unadjusted figures. Real-time data are available for selected indicators.

Turnover in industry

The industrial turnover index, which is calculated every month by the Federal Statistical Office, measures changes in turnover generated by products and industrial services. It focuses on invoiced deliveries and services provided to other businesses or enterprises. The turnover figures for companies in the manufacturing, mining, and quarrying sectors with 50 or more employees are recorded.

Retail turnover

The retail trade turnover index, which is calculated every month by the Federal Statistical Office, measures changes in the turnover of enterprises that sell goods to non-commercial consumers. It focuses on enterprises that are mainly involved in trade and have an annual turnover of more than €250,000. Turnover in the month under review is estimated on the basis of a sample of around 20,000 retail enterprises domiciled in Germany. As of January 2009, one-sixth of the enterprises selected for the sample are rotated on an annual basis. The first provisional results published for a reporting month are based on figures from nine German federal states. Consequently, the results are usually revised upon publication of the index number report, which contains reports for all German federal states and substitutes initial estimates for late reports with actual data.

Figures are reported for both the retail trade sector as a whole and its individual branches. The chart shows the retail trade sector excluding trade in motor vehicles.

Turnover and employees in the services sector

The services statistics, which are calculated every quarter by the Federal Statistical Office, cover turnover and employees in the services sector. Turnover includes all amounts charged for the provision of services in Germany.  Employees are workers employed and paid by a company. The sample is taken from all companies with an annual turnover of more than €15 million or at least 250 employees. Administrative data are used to record companies below this threshold. Turnover of smaller companies is calculated using advance turnover tax returns, while the relevant staff numbers are supplemented using companies’ notifications to the Federal Employment Agency regarding employees subject to social security contributions and those working in low-paid part-time jobs. Thus, the services statistics employs a mixed model, i.e. uses a combination of primary statistics and administrative data.